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The Science of Car Care
Nov 29, 2023

The Science of Car Care: Wheel Rotation, Alignment, and Balancing

Cars are remarkable feats of engineering, with countless components working in harmony to provide us with reliable transportation. Among these components, the wheels play a critical role in ensuring a smooth and safe ride. Proper wheel maintenance is essential to extend the life of your tires, enhance fuel efficiency, and promote safe driving. Let’s look at the science behind the wheels of the car and how you can protect your wheels with the help of car insurance.

Understanding the Basics

Before we explore the individual aspects of wheel maintenance, it's crucial to grasp some fundamental concepts:
  1. Wheel Assembly
  2. Tire Rotation
  3. Wheel Alignment
  4. Wheel Balancing
Let's explore each of these aspects in detail.

Tire Rotation

Tire rotation is the practice of moving the tires from one position to another on your car at regular intervals. This process is crucial for several reasons:
  • Even Tire Wear

As you drive, the front and rear tires wear differently due to varying loads and steering. Regular rotation helps ensure even tire wear, extending the lifespan of your tires. It is important to note that the tire protection cover in your comprehensive car insurance policy does not cover wear and tear.* Thus, regular rotation is important to even out the wear and tear the tires might face.
  • Improved Handling

Even tire wear leads to better handling and grip, especially in challenging road conditions like wet or icy surfaces.
  • Enhanced Fuel Efficiency

Balanced tire wear can improve fuel efficiency, as unevenly worn tires can create additional drag on the vehicle.
  • Savings

Rotating your tires regularly can save you money in the long run by extending the life of your tires and reducing the frequency of replacements.

Wheel Alignment

Wheel alignment is the process of adjusting the angles of the wheels to ensure they are perpendicular to the ground and parallel to each other. Proper alignment has several benefits:
  • Improved Handling

Correct alignment ensures your car drives straight and can be handled predictably, reducing the likelihood of accidents.
  • Fuel Efficiency

Proper alignment can enhance fuel efficiency by reducing rolling resistance and improving tire performance.
  • Steering Response

A well-aligned car responds more precisely to steering inputs, improving your overall driving experience. Misaligned wheels can occur due to various factors, including potholes, curbs, and general wear and tear. Regular wheel alignment checks are recommended, especially after significant impacts or when you notice signs of misalignment, such as a crooked steering wheel or uneven tire wear. While your motor insurance offers financial safety from damages caused in an accident, you can reduce the possibility of one by getting your car’s wheels properly realigned.*

Wheel Balancing

Wheel balancing is the process of ensuring that the weight distribution of the wheel and tire assembly is uniform. When wheels and tires are not correctly balanced, you may experience the following - vibrations while driving, uneven tire wear, and reduced handling.
  • Causes of Imbalance

Several factors can lead to wheel imbalance, including variations in tire manufacturing, wheel damage, and the accumulation of dirt or rust on the wheel.
  • Balancing Procedure

To balance a wheel, a technician will attach small weights to the wheel's rim at specific points. This compensates for any imbalances, ensuring a smooth and vibration-free ride.
  • Signs of Imbalance

If you experience vibrations in your steering wheel or through the vehicle's body, it's a clear indication your wheels may be out of balance.

The Science Behind It All

Now that we've explored the importance of wheel rotation, alignment, and balancing, let's delve into the science underlying these critical maintenance tasks.
  • Tire Wear Patterns

Tires wear unevenly due to a variety of factors, including vehicle weight distribution, steering, and suspension geometry. Proper tire rotation helps distribute this wear more evenly by changing the position of each tire on the vehicle.
  • Alignment Angles

Wheel alignment focuses on three primary angles: camber, caster, and toe. Camber refers to the vertical tilt of the wheel, caster involves the forward or backward tilt, and toe pertains to the inward or outward direction of the wheels. Correct alignment ensures these angles are within the manufacturer's specifications, promoting stability and safety.
  • Balance Weight Distribution

Wheel balancing relies on precise measurements and the attachment of small weights. It aims to ensure the centre of mass of the wheel and tire assembly coincides with the axis of rotation, minimizing vibrations.
  • Advanced Equipment

Modern wheel maintenance is facilitated by advanced technology, including computerized alignment machines and high-precision balancers. These tools allow technicians to achieve accurate and consistent results.


The science of car care is evident in the careful maintenance of your vehicle's wheels. By understanding the importance of tire rotation, alignment, and balancing, you can extend the life of your tires, improve fuel efficiency, and ensure a safe and comfortable driving experience. If the wheels of your car were to get damaged during accident, you can try raising a motor insurance claim for compensation. Claims are subject to terms and conditions set forth under motor insurance policy.*   *Standard T&C Apply Insurance is the subject matter of solicitation. For more details on benefits, exclusions, limitations, terms, and conditions, please read the sales brochure/policy wording carefully before concluding a sale.

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